This information was last updated on 3/3/07. The following sources were used:

Alaani A.Hogg, R. P.Drake Lee A. B. (2004). ‘Wegener’s granulomatosis and subglottic stenosis: management of the airway’. J Laryngol Otol., 118(10):786-90

Eicher, S. A. (1991), ‘Benign Tracheal Stenosis’, Grand Rounds Presentation,

Herrington, H. C., Webber, S. M., Anderson, P. E. (2006). Modern management of laryngotracheal stenosis. Laryngoscope. 116(9):1553-7

Garnett, J. D. ‘Subglottic stenosis in adults’. Edited by Scalfani, A. P. et al, last updated May 2005.

Sarper, A., Ayten, A., Eser, I., Ozbudak, O., Demircan, A. (2005). Tracheal stenosis after tracheostomy or intubation: Review with special regard to cause and management. Tex Heart Inst J. 32(2):154-8

Spittle, N., & McCluskey, A. (2000). ‘Clinical Review: Lesson of the week. Tracheal stenosis after intubation’, British Medical Journal, 321:1000-1002

Waizel, S. Castro-Ibarra, S. ‘Trachea, Stenosis’. Edited by Sing, S. P, last updated May